Resumen

Este trabajo se constituye en una propuesta innovadora, basada en el diagnóstico para el diseño de un dispositivo electrónico, que permita el acceso a las nuevas tecnologías a losniñas y niños ciegos de la Institución Educativa Olga González Arraut, de la ciudad de Cartagena, con el propósito de facilitar el aprendizaje de los procesos de lecto-escritura Braille, esta institución es de carácter mixto, incluye y/o cuenta con una población de 1.140 estudiantes entre videntes e invidentes, ofreciendo servicios educativos en los niveles de preescolar, básica y media académica, se trabajó durante el periodo comprendido entre el 2008 y 2009, participó la comunidad educativa, niñas y niños ciegos, maestros regulares y educadores especiales. En esta investigación se diagnosticó la necesidad del dispositivo electrónico, identificando las habilidades de los niños y niñas ciegos para poder manipular un dispositivo electrónico, definiendo las pautas para la construcción del dispositivo, se realizaron comparaciones del dispositivo diseñado con otros del mercado y finalmente se elaboró un manual del funcionamiento del dispositivo electrónico que sirva como guía básica al usuario. El trabajo se justificó porque posee valor teórico, por su conveniencia y por los beneficios que genera a los niños y niñas ciegos, a docentes regulares, educadores especiales y por ende al grupo investigador. La investigación se aborda como un estudio comparativo de carácter analítico.

Abstract

The present work constitutes an innovative proposal, based on the diagnosis for the design of an electronic device that allows access to new technologies for children (as) blind to the educational institution Arraut Olga Gonzalez, the city of Cartagena with the aim of facilitating the learning of Braille reading and writing processes, this institution is of mixed character, including and / or has a population of 1,140 students between sighted and blind people, offering educational services in pre-school, primary and academia, Are working 

during the period between 2008 and 2009, involving the educational community among these girls. Blind children and special educators regular teachers. For the realization of this research was necessary to diagnose the need for electronic device, then identified the skills of blind children in order to manipulate the electronic device were performed and subsequently defined the guidelines for the construction of the device, then made the device designed comparisons between the market and eventually developed a manual operation of the electronic device that serves as a basic guide to the user. The work is justified because it has theoretical value, for your convenience and based on the positive benefits of children (as) blind, regular teachers, special educators, and therefore the research group. The research addresses the type of comparative study of analytical character. The population was 25 blind children and 14 teachers scheduled, remaining divided between 4 blind students and 4 teachers regularly. Observation was applied and applied a survey of teachers trained for 5 closed and open questions. The results were processed and analyzed in a qualitative way, the data were grouped by type and later evaluate the results. Based on the results obtained and conclusions: teachers do not handle the Braille system, do not use tools other than the familiar (slate and stylus), and some are not aware of an electronic device, just as it carried out some assessment sheets and recovery of the children (as) blind, allowing the difficulties presented evidence (near-distance, long-short) and fine motor activities (not using slate and stylus, and machine reading bar der perkins) was evidenced that there is a device as designed, the design of the device finally motivate teachers and students to facilitate learning Braille and improve processes of teaching and learning of Braille.